高中英語完形填空知識點

時間:2019-01-04 英語知識 我要投稿

  知識點總結

  做完形填空題是基于整個語篇的理解,要求學生掌握相當數量的詞匯、句型、詞組和一定的閱讀理解能力和詞語 搭配能力,綜合運用語言知識的能力。由此可見完形填空題也是閱讀題,是一種難度較大的題型。是對考生閱讀理解和語言綜合運用能力的測試。

  完形填空的題型特色

  1、填空類型分析

  完形填空題的詞項有兩大類:實詞和虛詞。實詞指:動詞、名詞、形容詞、副詞、代詞和數詞; 虛詞指:介詞及介詞短語、連詞和冠詞。還有一種劃分是把完形填空題分為語義和動能兩大類,如果該題型要求考生填入實詞,這種填空題為語義類;如果該題型要 求考生填入虛詞,這種填空題為功能類。

  2、短文長度分析

  從短文的長度來看,近10年高考中,每篇短文平均為221個單詞。

  3、間隔設計分析

  完形填空題的難易取決于兩個因素:1)所取的短文本身所含的生詞量、語法、句子結構、句子長短、文化背景等; 2)空格之間的長度,空格與空格之間的長度越長,填空難度就越小,長度越小難度就越大。

  4、成分與結構分析

  從完形填空所填入的句子成分來看,以謂語、定語、賓語、狀語居多,還有表語、及其他成分,以及非謂語動詞、習慣搭配、固定詞組、介詞短語和各種句型等。從結構上分析,完形填空所提供的四個選項,如果單從本句的結構來看,四個選項都可以填入空 格,但從意義上看只有一個答案。

  常見考法

  我們做完形填空題的最后一道工序就是“復讀全文 驗證答案”。 題目做完以后,我們要把‘完形’后的全文再讀一遍,看看是否‘完義’。此外,還要從語法上看句子是否主謂一致,特別要注意非謂語動詞是否與主語一致,時態是否前后呼應,檢查動賓搭配,動 詞、形容詞、名詞與介詞的搭配是否合理,如果發現問題,則要根據文章的主題思想、本句、本段和全文的上下文與邏輯關系,重新選擇選項;如果個別選項實在沒 有把握,那就根據感覺猜一個,但決不能放棄。總之,我們要從完形和完義、語法和語義等方面進行推敲,修正錯誤,彌補疏漏,從而使自己的答案盡可能地接近或 達到完美。

  誤區提醒

  Many people find that regular physical activity gives them an unexpected benefit. They sleep better and wake up feeling more 61(refreshed) , in part due to increased amounts of deep sleep. Deep sleep may play a role in the body restoring itself 62(physically) , as opposed to REM(rapid eye movement) or dreaming sleep. Researchers have found that physical exercise, especially 63(done) in the afternoon or early evening, produces more 64(deep sleep) early in the night. 65(Exercise)can also help you get a better night’s sleep in a number of indirect ways. The relaxation and tiredness 66(caused) by exercise can improve sleep.

  Exercise encourages weight loss and also may 67(relieve) depression. Exercising later in the day can also help delay the 68(nighttime) drop in your body’s temperature. The 69(benefits) of exercise are especially important for older people, 70(since) exercise has been shown to increase the amount of sleep senior adults get in a night and reduce the time it takes to fall asleep. But be sure you finish exercising at least 4 hours before bedtime---working out later than that could leave you too excited to fall asleep easily.

  61. a. conscious b. peaceful c. effective d. refreshed

  62. a. physically b. mentally c. emotionally d. regularly

  63. a. made b. done c. functioned d. conducted

  64. a. night’s sleep b. dreaming sleep c. deep sleep d. REM

  65. a. Exercise b. Dreams c. Researchers d. Doctors

  66. a. recovered b. strengthened c. caused d. reduced

  67. a. increase b. relieve c. release d. arouse

  68. a. nighttime b. daytime c. dinnertime d. lifetime

  69. a. disadvantages b. benefits c. ways d. places

  70. a. yet b. if c. when d. since

  解析: 瀏覽一下本篇短文,我們就知道這篇短文的主題句就是:Many people find that regular physical activity gives them an unexpected benefit. 因此我們就知道這篇文章是談論鍛煉身體方面的。下文的填空就是關于這一方面的。我們在上文已經談到“完形必須服從完義,單句必須服從段落,段落必須服從全 文,局部必須服從全局”的解題原則。在這一篇短文的第一段,我們從physical activity和in the body得到啟示,62題應該填a. physically;從第二句和第三句的deep sleep得到啟示,64題應填c. deep sleep; 62與64題的做法很典型地體現了“完形必須服從完義”,“單句必須服從段落”的原則。而61與63題則根據“瞻前顧后,尋找關聯”的原則就可以解出,一個人如果sleep better,那么醒過來就會感到refreshed, 我們do exercise而不是made, functioned,或conducted exercise。我們在做65題時,可以從第一段和第三段得到啟示,第一段提到兩處‘physical activity’ 和‘physical exercise’, 而第三段有5處exercise或exercising, 結合第二段的意義,就不難看出65題應填a. Exercise. 再看69題,從單句的語法上看,四個選項都可以填進去,從單句的意義上看,benefits, ways, places三個選項都可以填進去,但從全文來看,特別是文章第一句的‘regular physical activity gives them an unexpected benefit’,就只有b. benefits填進去才對,而且是唯一的答案。65題和69題的做法體現了“完形必須服從完義”,“段落必須服從全文,局部必須服從全局”的原則

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